Wind Solar Resource Measurements / Offshore (WSOM)

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The Motive+

The aim of National Institute of Wind Energy under its Wind Resource Assessment & Offshore Project is to locate wind rich sites in the country through field measurements for the development of wind energy utilization. The data generated thus from all parts of the country is to be consolidated for the preparation of a National wind resource atlas. Apart from this all wind resource related studies on–land and off-shore using other techniques like models and satellite information are also to be used for the exploitation of wind energy. The division is involved in activities related to the development of offshore wind power projects in the country by using the latest and advance technologies currently available in the world.

The Methodology +

Dedicated 20/25/30/50/100/120m guyed masts with multilevel instrumentation are used for the investigation. Reliable and fully automated instruments that can give the necessary output for the wind energy resource assessment is being used at the field stations.

The Achievements+
  • Monitored wind speed & direction at 877 sites in the country.
  • Five numbers of 120m tall masts with multilevel instruments were commissioned at five major wind farm locations in the country to assess the wind shear as well as to act as reference stations [1. Akal/Jaisalmer in Rajasthan, 2. Lamba/ Jamnagar in Gujarat, 3. Jagmin/ Satara in Maharashtra, 4. Jogimatti/Chitradurga in Karnataka, 5. Kayathar/Tuticorin in Tamil Nadu]
  • Published Wind Energy Resource Survey Vol. V containing wind data of 34 wind monitoring stations in ten states.
  • Published Wind Energy Resource Survey Vol. VI containing wind data of 55 wind monitoring stations with CD in sixteen States/Union Territories.
  • Published Wind Energy Resource Survey Vol. VII containing wind data of 26 wind monitoring stations with CD in six states.
  • Published Wind Energy Resource Survey Vol. VIII containing wind data of 76 wind monitoring stations.
  • Published Wind Energy Resource Survey Vol. IX containing wind data of 35 wind monitoring stations.
  • Conducted Micrositing / due diligence for more than 8500 MW (total) wind farms in the Country.
  • About 1000 Nos. of Private Wind Monitoring Stations have been vetted.
  • Indian Wind Potential Map at 50m, 80m and 100m has been prepared and published.
  • Development of Online registry / Geotagging of wind turbines installed in the country
  • Initiated first LiDAR based wind resource assessment at Gulf of Khambhat
The Services Offered+
  • Site Prospecting and Site Selection
  • Standardized Wind Measurement System Configuration – Onshore and Offshore
  • Remote Sensing Device based Measurement
  • Integrated Wind & Solar Measurement
  • Verification of Wind Monitoring Procedure
  • Long Term Trend Analysis
  • Wind Flow Modelling
  • Wind Farm Layout Design
  • Bankable energy Yield Assessment & Due Diligence
  • Detailed Project Report (DPR) preparation for wind farm developers
  • Repowering & Intercropping studies
  • Offshore related Technical support services
    • Wind Measurements
    • Oceanographic Measurements (Wave, Current, Tidal)
    • Geophysical & Geotechnical services.
  • Tailor made training program on resource assessment to the industry.

Under take consultancy services on wind resources assessment, micro survey of wind resources, micro sitting and Detailed Project Report (DPR) for wind farm developments.

Estimated Wind Power Potential in India+

Wind power installable potential of the country has been estimated with reference to Indian Wind Atlas and insitu measurements. On a conservative consideration, a fraction of 2% land availability for all states except Himalayan states, Northeastern states and Andaman Nicobar Islands has been assumed for energy estimation. In Himalayan states, Northeastern states and Andaman & Nicobar Islands, it is assumed as 0.5%. However the potential would change as per the real land availability in each state. The installable wind power potential (name plate power) is calculated for each wind power density range by assuming 9 MW (average of 7D x 5D, 8D x 4D and 7D x 4D spacing, D is rotor diameter of the turbine) could be installed per square kilometer area .

States / UTsInstallable Potential(MW) at 50 m Level
Andaman & Nicobar2
Andhra Pradesh5394
Arunachal Pradesh*201
Himachal Pradesh *20
Jammu & Kashmir *5311
Madhya Pradesh920
Meghalaya *44
Nagaland *3
Sikkim *98
Tamil Nadu5374
Uttarakhand *161
Uttar Pradesh *137
West Bengal*22

* Wind potential has yet to be validated with measurements

Installable potential at 50 m level

Offshore Wind Resource Assessment+

India is blessed with a coastline of about 7600 km surrounded by water on three sides and has bright prospects of harnessing offshore wind energy. The Government of India notified the National Offshore Wind Energy Policy as per the Gazette notification dated 06 October 2015 to provide a policy framework for the exploitation of offshore wind energy up to the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the country. Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) is designated as the Nodal Ministry for development of Offshore Wind Energy in India and National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE) is identified as the Nodal Agency for the development of offshore wind energy in the country.

With the support of MNRE, NIWE has made consistent efforts to create a conducive environment for the development of offshore wind in the country. NIWE has carried out preliminary assessment along the Indian coastline through 74 nos. of meteorological mast measurements and through satellite data assessment, which showed reasonable potential along the Gujarat and Tamil Nadu coast.

Towards validating the preliminary assessments, NIWE has installed a 100m high guyed lattice mast in the coastal line of Dhanushkodi, Rameshwaram (refer Figure 3) which is a narrow piece of land jutting towards Sri Lanka and surrounded by water in three directions. The wind data has been monitored since October 2013, which indicates an annual average wind speed of 8.25 m /s, and Wind Power Density as 493.17 W/m2 at 100 m level.

100m high lattice mast in the coastal line of Dhanushkodi, Rameshwaram

100m high lattice mast in the coastal line of Dhanushkodi, Rameshwaram In order to validate the wind potential at the zones demarcated under FOWIND project, a LiDAR-based offshore wind measurement was initiated by NIWE in Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat Coast. The data measurements are underway since November 2017.

LiDAR measurement campaign at Gulf of Khambhat

NIWE has carried out Geophysical survey at about 365 (70 under FOWPI project) in Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat for the proposed 1 GW offshore wind farm project to ascertain the nature of subsurface and soil profile available at recommended depths for the design of foundation of offshore structures.

Geotechnical survey is also proposed to be carried out at 3-4 Locations after completion of the geophysical survey as preliminary input to the bidders on the sea-bed soli characteristics

Region of interest for Geophysical Survey
New Initiatives+
  • Metocean Measurements

  • Under this project NIWE proposes to carry out extensive LiDAR based offshore wind resource assessment off the Gujarat coast and Tamil Nadu coasts. In addition to this, NIWE proposes to carry out the Oceanographic / Hydrographic measurements, in and around the LiDAR platforms or suitable locations off the Gujarat coast and Tamil Nadu coast to understand the sea-state conditions, which are envisaged as equally essential and necessary to design the foundation of the Offshore wind turbines, to plan for Installation & other survey activities, and to understand the Weather Window for Operation and Maintenance planning. These simultaneous measurements will help to quantify the wind potential and understand sea-state in a fast-track manner, for effective demarcation of the offshore wind energy blocks.

    In Gujarat, two locations have been identified for the measurements in Zone A and Zone B2.

    In Tamilnadu, two locations at zone B1 and zone D1 have been identified and the clearance process has been initiated.

    Typical diagram of met-ocean Buoy

  • Integrated Wind and Solar Resource Assessment through Mapping and Measurements

  • Reliable background information on the availability of renewable resource and its geographical variation will play a major role in achieving the government’s ambitious targets. As the wind speed increases with respect to height, the hub height extension is being looked into one of the effective solutions to enhance the energy yield from the wind turbines. With the technical advancements, the modern day turbines have reached the hub height of 120m to 130m and a further enhancement in hub height is foreseen, which would require higher height maps. Studies have also revealed that solar and winds are almost complementary to each other.

    Hybridization of these two technologies would help in minimizing the variability apart from optimally utilizing the infrastructure including land & transmission system and a Hybrid potential map in this regard would be very much helpful for the stakeholders to identify suitable sites for further investigation. NIWE proposes to prepare indicative Renewable Energy potential maps (wind maps at 120m & 150m and Hybrid maps) through advanced numerical meso-scale modeling techniques and validate the maps with Integrated wind and solar masts and remote sensing in-situ ground measurements to move towards achieving the ambitious goals as envisaged by the government.